Establishing requirements for NDE performanceS
EVENT DATE: July 22, 2020
10.30 – 11.00: Break
11.45 – 12.30: The middle wave infrared thermography in non-destructive testing and contactless evaluation of dynamical testing in experimental mechanics
Prof. Lovre Krstulovic-Opara (University of Split, Croatia) (Presentation)
12.30 – 13.30: Lunch break
14.15 – 15.00: Examination
P. Trampus: Non-destructive evaluation as a foundation of structural integrity assessment
Ageing effects lead to the gradual reduction of safety margins of engineering structures. At the same time the risk being acceptable by the society is decreasing. Nondestructive evaluation plays an important role in assessing safety of engineering structures because they deliver an essential input to their structural integrity analysis. In the first part of the presentation the major trends characterizing the changes in relation to NDE will be shown. Among others: development in structural integrity analysis, fracture mechanics, appearance of life management and consideration of risk. After that those elements of the technical development will be presented, which respond to the challenges triggered by the changes. Almost all of these can be connected to the development of information technology and microelectronics, and contribute to the improvement in flaw detection, characterization and sizing. Among solution however there are some whose goal is the reduction in cost and/or examination time. Examples will cover ultrasonic testing, digital radiography, and NDE simulation.
R. Martinez Ona: Advanced ultrasonic techniques for answering high NDE performance requirements
The use of NDT for structural condition assessment is a common practice. NDT methods could help to assess a system structural details, integrity and defects, strength of materials, corrosion monitoring, among others. Currently, it is necessary to perform a multi-technology approach to have a complete assessment of the structural condition under study. Ultrasonic testing is one of the most used NDT methods for structural condition assessment, mainly, based on its capability of carrying out volumetric examinations and the availability of performant techniques.
In accordance to the European Network for Inspection Qualification (ENIQ) Methodology, inspection qualification gives way to achieve high levels of NDE techniques performance and reliability. Following this approach, to assess or develop a particular inspection technique, the first thing is to know its purpose and the linked input information. Inspection techniques could provide four main kind of information, of interest for structural condition assessment: capability of defect detection, defect sizing, defect characterisation and defect location.
To improve these capabilities, in the last years, a burst of phased arrays ultrasonic testing (PAUT) equipment and applications has appeared. The skilful use of these equipment allows achieving high performant results, nevertheless, it requires appropriate understanding of the PAUT essential variables and proper training to master and program the equipment. Furthermore, the equipment incorporates more capabilities, such as ray tracing, basic modelling, filtering, advanced focussing methods, and full matrix capture and total focusing method (FMC/TFM).
In this paper, we present the motivation of why inspection qualification, then follow a brief explanation of ENIQ European Methodology for Qualification of NDT. Then, we introduce the basic of ultrasonic sizing techniques, after this, we explain the fundamentals of phased arrays and its essential variables. Finally, we comment the rationale and capabilities of the focusing algorithms and alike. Along the presentation, following the explanations we include examples that facilitate the understanding of the concepts shown.
J. Mileffne Dudra: The role of the NDT results in reliability assessment of engineering structures
The reliability of engineering structural elements having crack like defects depend on the following parameters: actual crack resistance of material, the stress-strain fields in the elements, and NDT results (i.e. crack length, position, etc). The role of the crack length (i.e. NDT result) in danger needs to be defined by pure number in order to compare the level of danger. This is suggested by implementation of crack propagation sensitivity index (CPSI) concept for quasi-static and cyclic loaded elements.
L. Krstlovic-Opara: The middle wave infrared thermography in non-destructive testing and contactless evaluation of dynamical testing in experimental mechanics
A brief introduction to the field of infrared thermography and middle wave acquisition will be followed by active and passive thermography methods. Equipment requirements, long wave vs. middle wave. Applications of active infrared thermography in evaluation of composites and metals, what kind if heat source is needed. Image processing techniques and mathematical transforms used for locating and evaluating indications. Passive thermography analysis energy absorbing components – how Digital Image Correlation method and infrared thermography are related.
I. Virkkunen: NDT reliability and probability of detection, POD
The purpose of NDT is to reduce uncertainty. Thus, reliability is paramount. At the same time, NDT is always pushed to find the smallest possible defects. NDT is always pushed to the limits of its reliability. This lecture reviews the factors affecting NDT reliability and introduces probability of detection (POD) as a tool to assess inspection reliability. The commonly used methodologies (hit/miss and â vs. a) are introduced and the associated assumptions and recommended fields of application are reviewed. Reliability and its evaluation are viewed from the inspector point of view: what can the inspector do to improve reliability and how different aspects of inspection affect reliability.